## The evolution of gravity and the universe

When Einstein predicted the Big Bang in 1905, he used the term “singularity” to describe it.

“We can imagine that the whole of space-time is the first phase of a singularity, in which all matter is replaced by light and energy,” he wrote in his 1921 paper, “The Singularity.”

But as we’ve learned over the last few decades, the theory of gravity holds up in practice.

When we consider the physics of gravity, there are actually many phases of the same singularity.

But because gravity’s effects on space-Time and time itself are so different, we don’t see the singularity as the point at which all the different parts of space and time begin to collapse into one, unified whole.

The universe is not, Einstein thought, the sum of its parts, but rather, its parts are the same.

In other words, there’s no singularity at all.

“It’s a pretty neat concept, and one that we can actually use,” says Peter Singer, a professor of physics at Princeton University who specializes in quantum mechanics.

“The idea that we know the universe is the same as we know everything else is an incredibly powerful idea.”

The problem is that Einstein didn’t know how to define a singular, single point of separation in space and in time.

“I don’t think anybody knew how to do it,” says Singer.

So, in the years that followed, Einstein used various mathematical techniques to define what he saw as the most general kind of “singularity,” but without actually defining the specific “singing” he was talking about.

But when Singer and other researchers started working on the standard theory of relativity, they began to come up with new ways to measure the size of space.

In 1957, for instance, Einstein and a collaborator called Erwin Schrödinger published a paper in Physical Review Letters in which they described the behavior of the universe at a certain scale, and showed that the expansion of space itself has a finite, “uniform” size, depending on the strength of the forces acting on the space.

“You can look at that as a kind of black box,” says Martin Gardner, a physicist at Cornell University who’s also an author of the paper.

The results were pretty consistent with what Einstein had seen, but when the two physicists tried to prove it, the results didn’t seem to agree with the way they were measuring the universe.

“That’s one of the big questions,” says Gardner.

“Is there some kind of limit to how far you can stretch space, or is it just a matter of some kind?”

Einstein’s team came up with the idea of measuring the expansion at the level of the observer, which is the most distant point in space that can be measured with the most powerful instrument.

But even then, they didn’t find a way to calculate the amount of expansion.

Instead, they just measured how much light that was bouncing off the ground as it travelled across the cosmos.

It’s an experiment called the Lorentz Transformation, which has been used since the late 1800s.

The problem was that the researchers had to calculate how much of the light bouncing off a particular object was coming from the same direction.

In order to do this, they needed to find the direction of the Lorenz Force, the force that pulls objects toward the observer.

That force, however, has been well-studied by other researchers, including by the famous experimenter Pierre-Simon Laplace.

So in the 1960s, Einstein’s group came up to the problem of how to calculate this force in a way that would be consistent with the Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.

To make the calculation, they used the same kind of equation that Einstein used in 1905 to describe the universe, but instead of looking at the direction from which light was being bounced, they looked at the acceleration.

To do this they took a “flat” version of the equation, which gives you the acceleration from the observer to the object in question.

But as Gardner notes, this equation is not what you’d want to use to calculate a new kind of singularity for a new type of experiment.

Instead of looking for the “flatness” of the Einstein equations, they were looking for an “expansion.”

This is when they had to find a “new” formula to fit the Einstein equation to the new position of the acceleration in space.

But this new formula didn’t give them the exact same result.

“And that’s where the confusion came in,” says John Molyneux, a theoretical physicist at the University of Chicago who studies gravity.

“What they were really trying to do was to determine how much expansion was happening in the universe as a whole, and how much was happening at one point in time.”

The result was that their new formula gave them a value that was “unreliable,” because it didn’t account for how much space-Space is expanding.

In the end, it came down to a calculation that was very difficult